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Wheat // Wheat was one of the first of the grains domesticated by humans
Early History of Wheat
Annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains, grains of common wheat; sometimes cooked whole or cracked as cereal; usually ground into flour Wheat is the second-largest cereal crop, tied with maize; the third being rice. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour, livestock feed .In some areas wheat is also planted strictly as a forage crop for livestock and hay.
Wheat was one of the first of the grains domesticated by humans .Early History of Wheat according to the Islamic Point of View As in Quaran Majeed (Holy Book Of Muslims ) Hazrat Adam & Hava eat the Fruit of a Plant “Some scholar‘s says that ‘s plant is the Wheat but some Scholars doesn’t agrees with them .As in Quaran “Adam & Have are being send on Earth due to the disobey ALLAH s’order & that’s order was not to eat a plant restricted by the ALLAH “.This all happen because ALLAH runs the system of like on the earth
The agricultural literature features various works in different languages on the origins of wheat. The most credible assumption is that people began to use wheat for food in prehistoric times, beginning at least 15,000 years B.C.
About 10,000 B.C., man first started eating a crude form of flat bread - a baked combination of flour and water.
Ancient Egyptians are believed to be the first to have baked leavened (raised) bread. About 3,000 B.C., they started fermenting a flour and water mixture by using wild yeast that was present in the air. Since wheat is the only grain with sufficient gluten content to make a raised or leavened loaf of bread, wheat quickly became favored over other grains grown at the time, such as oats, millet, rice, and barley. The workers who built the pyramids in Egypt were paid in bread.
The Egyptians also developed ovens in which several loaves of bread could be baked at the same time. Bread for the rich was made from wheat flour, bread for those who weren't wealthy was made from barley, and bread for the poor was made from sorghum.
Where did agriculture and the cultivation of wheat first begin?
There is a great deal of international literature on how agriculture was first established. There is even more on the appearance of the first seeds, the development of wheat and its origins. But the question never has been answered definitively.
Wheat is one of the world's most ancient cultivated plants. Various archaeological excavations in Pakistan have provided new evidence on the early origins of agriculture.
Wheat, has been the cereal food of the major civilizations in Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa for 8,000 years. During the past four decades the crop has undergone historic changes. Asia experienced benefits from the "Green Revolution", started in the mid 1960s.
The region made great strides in food production, achieving sufficiency in basic grains. Crop production is dictated by Nature, but post-production operations play an important role in creating a stable food supply. It is estimated that about 25.0 million tons of wheat are lost during post-harvest stages (including storage and post-production). About 46 percentage of this loss is recorded in developing countries.
In Asia wheat, rice and maize are the major food grains contributing over 90 percentages of the total food grains. Regional production data show (see Table 1) an estimated 42 percentage of the world's wheat, rice and maize during 1997 were produced in Asia, followed by 31 percentages in Europe and 16 percentage in North Central America (NC America). Asia contributes about 92 percentage of world's rice production followed by South America and Africa at about 3 percentages each. NC America contributes half of the world's maize production, followed by Asia, Europe and South America who contribute 27 percentages, 11 percentages and 8 percentages, respectively.
For thousands of years, grain production has been one of the main fields of agriculture in World .Wheat has played a very important role in grain production. Scientists recorded numerous grain varieties there which are found nowhere else in the world. A few varieties of wild wheat can still be found in world .
Wheat as we know it in the millennia of this era is not the same as it was at the very beginning. The genetics of wheat show that its development is very complex. Today's grain has developed from three naturally occurring groups of wheat. Through natural crossings, mutations, and natural selection these have evolved into all the many varieties of wheat grown worldwide.
Of all cultivated plants, wheat has been the most important food product for humankind. Agriculture took many centuries to develop, and its early history is written not on parchment but on the memory of the creative human mind.
Pakistan's Wheat Varieties
  • AS 2002 NOV
  • SH 2002 NOV
  • Pasban 90 NOV
  • Ufaq NOV
SOWING SPAN (Early to Late)
  • Inqlab-91 1st Nov- 15th Dec
  • Minthar 2003 1st Nov- 10th Dec
  • Uqab-2000 1st Nov- 10th Dec
  • Bhakar 2001 1st Nov- 10th Dec
  • Punjnad 2001 1st Nov- 10th Dec
SOWING SPAN (Mid to Late)
  • Iqbal 2000 15th Nov-15th Dec
  • Bhp 2000 25th Nov-15th Dec
Sowing Method
  • Drill
  • Broadcast
  • Gup- chut
Irrigation Schedule
  • 1st Irrigation --------- Tillering(20-25 days)
  • 2nd Irrigation -------- Booting (75-90 days)
  • 3rd Irrigation -------- Grain formation(120-130 days)
  • Minimum threshold temperature ------- 0 degree C
  • Maximum tolerance temperature ------ 35 degree C
  • Best temperature range ------ 10 - 25 degree C
  • Planting to germination (one inch depth) ------ 105 DDs
  • To produce one leaf on main stem ------ 80 - 100 DDs
Solar Radiation / Thermal Time / Heat Units measured as Degree Days.
(Max. Temp + Min. Temp) / 2 = Degree Days
Growth & Development of Wheat
Effect of Weeds
  • Competitions of the growth requirements
  • Water ,light & Nutrients
  • Reduction in Crop Quantity and Quality
  • Alternate Hosts of pests & disease
  • Competition for space
  • Sometimes breaks the tillage implements
  • Some weeds are poisonous to human and animals
  • Increase the cost of production
  • Lower the aesthetic value of the land
Growth Losses of Weeds In Wheat
  • Reduce growth by taking share of water food, light & air.
  • Reduce tiller production and survival, which may result in low production.
  • Grow fast & shade over the Wheat plants which may result in weak plant stand.
  • Reduce growth, production and grain quality of Wheat by mixing at the time of harvest.
  • Make hindrances and reduce water flow applied to the Wheat.
  • Some weeds induce lodging of Wheat crop by binding/climbing over the plants.
  • Some weeds due to the spines and throns make trouble in the crop harvest.
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